birds are not only spirits of nature, but also friends of human beings. They play an important role in the ecological balance of nature. Feathers are the most important feature that distinguishes birds from other animals.

feathers can make birds fly, keep warm and cool, and can also play the role of camouflage and decoration. Some beautiful birds have received special attention for their "colorful clothes", such as male bird of paradise , red-billed blue magpie with dream blue and purple feathers,, peacock with green overhead and bright and, and swallows in black and white tuxedos flying in the sky. .

how are the colorful clothes of birds formed? Originally, the color of feathers mainly depends on the pigment body contained in the feathers and its internal structure. The pigment particles of the feather can enter different parts with the formation of the feather, and then combine the internal structure of the feather and other factors to determine the different colors of the feather. Common melanins and carotenoids are the main pigments that form the color of bird feathers. Common pigments are usually unique to certain species, such as the red, orange and yellow pigments in parrot feathers, the fluorescent yellow β-defensins of king penguins and Macron penguins, copper uroporphyrin and the red pigment in banana rhododendron feathers.

it seems to be the nature of birds to find a mate with beautiful feathers, but why is the feather of female birds simpler than that of male birds "? This is the evolutionary principle of" using advance and waste retreat. In long-term natural selection, the feather color of female birds is useless, and the genes controlling the feather color are lost or inactivated. In addition, the simple feathers of females also help them hide from their young and are not easy to be found by natural enemies.