Today, we learn about one of the biggest and most famous country in the world : Brazil ! Let's go to South America !

The flag :

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The country :

Brazil is a large country in South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
It is bordered by French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia at the north, Peru and Bolivia at the east and Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina at the south.
Brazil also possesses the Archipelo of Fernando de Noronha, as well as several other islands such as Trindade and Martin Vaz, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Abrolhos Marine National Park, or the Rocas Atoll.

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Brazil has around 210 millions inhabitants, it is the 6th most populated country on earth. The official language of the country is Portuguese, due to colonization.

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The official motto of the country is "Ordem e Progresso", which means Order and Progress in Portuguese.

The main religion of Brazil is Christianity, for 88% of the population. Around 64.6% identify as Catholics, while 22.2% are Protestants. 8% identify as atheist, and 2% as Spiritist, which is a belief that follows the moral teaching of Jesus, but also follows the nature of spirits and their relation with the world.
Other religions makes up 3.2% of the population and include indigenous beliefs, Islam, Judaism, Mormonism, Jehovah Witnesses, Buddhism, Hinduism...

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The capital city of Brazil is Brasília, which is the third largest city of the country. The other major cities include São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Fortazela and Belo Horizonte.

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Brasília, 3,039,444 inhabitants. It is the capital city, and where the head of the brazilian government is. The city was buildt in 1960 to become the Capital city of the country, from nothing, it was a planned city and is very recent. It is located in the center of the country. It is also a Unesco heritage site.
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São Paulo, 12,325,232 inhabitants, the largest city, not only in Brazil but in the whole America. It is a metropolis, an extremely important city, financially, culturally and politically, both in Brazil and the world. It is home to the highest skyscrappers in Brazil and a lot of museums and monuments.
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Rio de Janeiro, 6,747,815 inhabitants. It used to be the capital of the country, before Brasilia. It is the most touristic city of Brazil but also of the South America. It is known for its cultural importance, with events like the Carnival of Rio being famous in the whole world and very famous monuments such as Christ the Redeemer, judged one of the New Wonders of the World.
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Salvador, 2,886,698 inhabitants. It is one of the oldest colonial city of the Americas. The city is known for its architecture and The Pelourinho district became an UNESCO world heritage site in 1985. Its carnival is considered the largest party in the world. It is also considered the center of the Afro-Brazilian culture, as it is an ex slave port and many of descendants of slaves still live there.
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Fortaleza, 2,686,612 inhabitants. It is the second largest touristic destination of Brazil, because of its beautiful beaches and cultural scene.
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Belo Horizonte, 2,721,564 inhabitants. It is home to several famous architectural projects.

Now, let's look at the ethnic groups in Brazil !

The largest group are the Pardo Brazilians, meaning multiracial, who makes up 46,8% of the population. They are very diverse and can be mixed from European, Indigenous, African, Asian descent... they often are considered to have darker skin than White Brazilians and lighter skin that Afro-Brazilians.
The Caboclos are considered to be of mixed Indigenous and European descent, the mulatos are of European and African descent, and the cafuzos of Indigenous and African descent.

The second largest group of Brazilians are White Brazilians, who makes 42,7% of the population. Their main ancestry is Portuguese, other ancestries being generally Italian, Spanish and German. The White Brazilian population mainly live in the south of Brazil.

The third largest group are the Pretos, or Afro-Brazilians, who are of African descent, they makes up 9,4% of the population.

The Amarelos are the fourth largest groups, making up 1.1% of the population, and are of East Asian descent.

Finally, the Indigenous Brazilians makes up 0.4% of the population. They are part of around 300 different tribes. 67 of these tribes are uncontacted and live in the Amazon Rainforest.

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The Guarani is the largest group of indigenous brazilian, they are around 51 000. They speak the Guarani languages.
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The Yanomami are around 19,420 in Brazil, they have the largest territory of any indigenous people from Brazil, making 9.4 million hectares in the northern Amazon. They speak the Yanomaman languages and are pretty isolated.
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The Kaingang people are 33,064 and live in northern Brazil, they speak the Kaingang language.
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The Ticuna people are 36,377 in Brazil, and live in the Amazon. They speak the Ticuna language.
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The Terena people are 24,776, only live in Brazil, in the center of the country. They speak the Terena language.
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The Guajajara people are 19,471 and only live in Brazil. They live in the north and speak the Guajajara language.
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The Munduruku people are 13,755 and live in the Amazon river bassin. They speak the Munduruku language.

They are many other indigenous groups, but sadly most tribes are only around 1000 individuals. Colonization massively destroyed the indigenous population of Brazil, who went from 2000 tribes to only around 300. They were decimated. It is now important to work to preserve all of the tribes, their cultures and let the uncontacted tribes stay uncontacted.

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Here it is for the ethnic groups ! Please note that all of these is complicated and a lot of Brazilians are of several descents, and pretty mixed overall. Brazilians have their own way to look at ethnicities and race because of that.

Now, let's see some landmarks of Brazil :

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Christ the Redeemer
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The Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
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The Selarón Steps
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The Parque Lage
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The Brasilia Cathedral
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The Chapada Diamantina National Park
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The Museu do Amanhã
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The Iguazu Falls
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The Curitiba Botanical Garden
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The Porto de Galinhas
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The Amazone Theater

As always, there are many more, but this is just a little selection that I made !

Now, let's meet some of the most famous Brazilians :

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The football (soccer) player Neymar
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The writer Paulo Coelho
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The singer Ivete Sangalo
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The actress Morena Baccarin
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The football (soccer) player Pelé
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The model Camila Alves
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The architect Oscar Niemeyer
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The model Adriana Lima

And here it is ! I hope you enjoyed that article, I had fun making it. Brazil is so beautiful ! Here are my last articles :

And the next article will be about... BRUNEI !