Assalaamu ‘Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakatuh

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem

Hadith 64
Today’s Beautiful Hadith is about Qadar (Divine Decree)

islam, qadr, and his teachings image

It is narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Ya'mur that the first man who discussed qadr (Divine Decree) in Basra was Ma'bad al-Juhani. I along with Humaid b. 'Abdur-Rahman Himyari set out for pilgrimage or for 'Umrah and said:

Should it so happen that we come into contact with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) we shall ask him about what is talked about taqdir (Divine Decree). Accidentally we came across Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab, while he was entering the mosque. My companion and I surrounded him. One of us (stood) on his right and the other stood on his left. I expected that my companion would authorize me to speak. I therefore said: Abu Abdur Rahman! There have appeared some people in our land who recite the Qur'an and pursue knowledge. And then after talking about their affairs, added: They (such people) claim that there is no such thing as Divine Decree and events are not predestined. He (Abdullah ibn Umar) said: When you happen to meet such people tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. And verily they are in no way responsible for my (belief). Abdullah ibn Umar swore by Him (the Lord) (and said): If any one of them (who does not believe in the Divine Decree) had with him gold equal to the bulk of (the mountain) Uhud and spent it (in the way of Allah), Allah would not accept it unless he affirmed his faith in Divine Decree. He further said: My father, Umar ibn al-Khattab, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him. At last he sat with the Apostle (peace be upon him) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs and said: Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth. He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good deeds). He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you. He (the enquirer) again said: Inform me about the hour (of the Doom). He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring (about it). He (the inquirer) said: Tell me some of its indications. He (the Holy Prophet) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herds vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings. He (the narrator, Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: Then he (the inquirer) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Holy Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: Umar, do you know who this inquirer was? I replied: Allah and His Apostle knows best. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He was Gabriel (the angel). He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 1]

Abu Hurairah said: "Idolaters from the Quraish came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) quarreling about Al-Qadar. So this Ayah was revealed: "The day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire (it will be said to them): "Taste you the touch of Hell." Verily we have created all things with Qadar (54:48 & 49). [Jami’at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3290]
Ibn 'Umar narrated from the Prophet (s.a.w): "There will be a collapse of the earth and transformation in my Ummah, and that is for those who deny Al-Qadar." [Jami’at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Book 6, Hadith 2153]
Nafi said: Ibn ‘Umar had a friend from the people of Syria who used to correspond with him. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar wrote to him: I have been informed that you have talked something about Divine decree. You should write it to me, for I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: Among my community there will be people who will falsify Divine decree. [Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 41, Hadith 459]
It was narrated that Suraqah bin Ju'shum said: "I said: 'O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), is one's deed in that which has already dried of the Pen and what has passed of the Divine Decree, or is it in the future?' He said: 'No, it is in that which he already dried of the Pen and what has passed of the Divine Decree, and each person is facilitated for what he has been created.'" [Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 91]
It was narrated that 'Ali said: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: 'No slave truly believes until he believes in four things: in Allah alone with no partner; that I am the Messenger of Allah; in the resurrection after death; and in the Divine Decree (Qadar).'" [Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 81]
It was narrated that ‘Ubaid bin Rifa’ah Az-Zuraqi said: “Asma’ said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! The children of Ja’far have been afflicted by the evil eye, shall I recite Ruqyah for them?’ He said: ‘Yes, for if anything were to overtake the Divine decree it would be the evil eye.’”* [ Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 4, Book 31, Hadith 3510]
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Vows do not bring the son of Adam anything unless it has been decreed for him. But he is dominated by Divine preordainment, and will get what is decreed for him. And (vows) are a means of making the miser give something, so what he desires becomes obtainable for him, which was not obtainable before his vow. And Allah says: 'Spend, I will spend on you.' [Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 3, Book 11, Hadith 2123]
It was narrated from ’Umar that Jibreel عليه السلام said to the Prophet ﷺ: ”What is faith (eeman)? He said:“To believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and the divine decree, both good and bad,” Jibreel said to him: You have spoken the truth. He said: We were amazed that he asked him and then confirmed his answers as being correct. The Prophet ﷺ said: “That was Jībreel, who came to teach you your religion.` [Musnad Ahmad, Book 2, Hadith 10]

Qadr is a branch of Faith as in the Hadith above. Your faith isn’t complete until you believe in the divine decree.

In the Hadith of the Angel Gabriel above, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) explicitly stated that one must believe in divine decree, “[both] the good and the evil thereof.” Ibn al-Qayyim points out that what is meant by “evil” is with respect to the human beings and not with respect to Allah. The “evil” is the result of the human’s act of ignorance, wrong, oppression and sin. However, it was allowed and brought into being by Allah. But no evil is to be attributed to Allah because, with respect to Allah, the act is good and full of wisdom, as it must be a result of Allah’s knowledge and wisdom. Any act of that nature must, in its essence, be good and cannot be pure evil. This is supported by the Prophet’s hadith, “Evil is not to be attributed to You.” That is because every act that occurs is the result of some wisdom and goodness and can never be pure evil. The individual himself may think it otherwise, but in reality there is wisdom and good in everything that occurs in Allah’s creation.

“The topic of qadr will never be fully understood by the human mind because it deals with the majesty and knowledge of Allah. And that is why Ibn Abbas said : Qadr is the secret of Allah, whoever tries to unlock it will end up rejecting Allah SWT.” Yasir Qadhi

And some verses from the Holy Quran:

Ibn al-Qayyim shows that there are four “levels” or aspects of belief in Qadar. If one does not believe in these four aspects, he does not have the correct or proper belief in Allah.

The first level is belief in Allah’s knowledge of everything, both of universals and particulars, before its existence. This is related to both, what is sometimes referred to as, the actions of Allah, such as producing rain, giving life and so forth, as well as the actions of human beings. Allah has foreknowledge of all of the deeds of the creation according to His ever-existing knowledge that He is described as having eternally. This includes His knowledge of all their affairs with respect to obedience, disobedience, sustenance and life-spans.
This aspect can be concluded from many Quranic verses, including:

“And with Him are the keys of the Unseen. None knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is on the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record” {Quran 6:59}.

The second level of belief in Qadar is belief in Allah’s recording of all things before He created the heavens and the earth. Hence, Allah not only knew and knows what will happen, but Allah has also recorded this information in the Preserved Table (al-Lauh al-Mahfoodh). Such an act is not difficult for Allah whatsoever.

Allah says,

“Don’t you know that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Verily, it is all in the Book. Verily, that is easy for Allah” {Quran 22:70}.

Allah also says,

“No calamity occurs on the earth or among yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book [of Decrees] before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah” {Quran 57:22}.

The third level is to believe in Allah’s decreeing of everything that is in existence, and if He does not will something, it can never come into existence. Once again, this also refers to all things. It refers to Allah’s actions of giving life, sustenance and so forth; and it also includes all of the acts performed by human beings. Nothing can be done unless Allah decrees it and allows it to occur. A person may intend or try, for example, to shoot and kill another person but such can only occur if Allah decrees it. The person may take all the necessary steps but if Allah does not will it to occur, it will not occur. In the case just mentioned, Allah may will the gun to jam or the shooter’s hand to flinch and miss his target and so forth. This aspect of Qadar may also be concluded from numerous pieces of evidence.

For example, Allah says,

“If Allah had willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against each other, after clear verses of Allah had come to them. But they differed, some of them believing and others disbelieving. If Allah had willed, they would not have fought against one another, but Allah does what He likes” {Quran 2:253}.

Allah also says,

“Verily, this [the Quran] is no less than a Reminder to (all) the ‘Alamin (mankind and jinn).To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight. And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists)” {Quran 81:27- 29}.

Ibn Uthaimeen also offers a rational argument for this aspect of belief in Qadar. He says that it must be accepted that Allah is the Owner, Master and Controller of this creation. Hence, it cannot be the case, as long as everything is under His Control and part of His Dominion, that something occurs in His Dominion that He does not want to happen. Therefore, everything that occurs in His creation is by His Will. Nothing could ever occur unless He willed it. Otherwise, His control and mastery over His dominion would be deficient and lacking, as things would be occurring in His dominion that either He did not will to occur or they occurred without His knowledge. These hypotheses are unacceptable.

“Blessed be He who sent down the Criterion to His slave [Muhammad] that he may be a warner to the Worlds. He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and who has begotten no offspring and for whom there is no partner in the dominion. He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements” {Quran 25:1-2}.

Also,

“Allah has created everything” {Quran 39:62}.

Another verse states,

“Verily, We created all things with Divine Pre-ordainment” {Quran 54:49}.

Ibn Uthaimeen has explained this point by saying, Everything is a creation of Allah. Even the deeds of mankind are creations of Allah. Although they are by [man’s] free choice and will, they are creations of Allah. This is because every act of a human is the result of two aspects: a definitive will [to do the act] and the complete ability [to do the act]. For example, suppose that in front of you is a stone weighing twenty pounds. I say to you, “Lift this stone,” and you say, “I don’t want to lift it.” In this case, your lack of will has prevented you from lifting the stone. If I said a second time to you, “Lift that stone,” and you said, “Yes, I will listen and do what you have said.” In this case, if you wanted to lift it but you were not capable of lifting it, you would not have lifted it because you did not have the capability to do so. If I said to you a third time, “Lift that stone,” and you complied and lifted it above your head, that was because you had the ability and the will to do it.

All of our deeds that we perform, therefore, are the result of a definitive will and complete ability. The one who created that ability and will is Allah. If Allah had made you paralyzed, you would not have the ability. If you turned your attention to some other deed, you would not have done it...

Therefore, we say: All of the actions of humans are created by Allah. This is because they are the result of definitive will and complete ability. The one who created that will and ability is Allah. The way in which Allah is the creator of that will and capability is that the will and ability are two characteristics of the one who wants something and the one who has ability but the one who created that person with that ability was Allah. The One who created the person who has specific characteristics is also the one who created those characteristics. This makes the matter clear and shows that the actions of human beings are the creation of Allah.

There are a number of questions and misconceptions that have arisen surrounding the concept of Qadar. Jaafar Sheikh Idris has adequately dealt with a number of such issues. He wrote,

'God decided to create man as a free agent, but He knows (and how can He not know?) before creating every man how he is going to use his free will; what, for example, his reaction would be when a Prophet clarifies God’s message to him... “But if we are free to use our will,” a Qadari might say, “we may use it in ways that contradict God’s will, and in that case we would not be right in claiming that everything is willed or decreed by God.”'

The Quran answers this question by reminding us that it was God who willed that we shall be willful, and it is He who allows us to use our will.

”Indeed, this is a reminder, so he who wills may take to his Lord a way. And you do not will except that Allah wills. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.” {Quran surah 76:29-30}

“If so,” says a Qadari, “He could have prevented us from doing evil.” Yes, indeed he could,

“Had God willed, He would have brought them all together to the guidance” {Quran 6:35}

And Allah says

“if thy Lord had willed whoever is in the earth would have believed, all of them, all together” {Quran 10:99}...

But He had willed that men shall be free especially in regard to matters of belief and disbelief.

“Say: ‘The truth is from your Lord; so let whosoever will believe, and let whosoever will disbelieve” {Quran 18:29}

“If our actions are willed by God,” someone might say, “then they are in fact His actions.” This objection is based on a confusion. God wills what we will in the sense of granting us the will to choose and enabling us to execute that will, i.e., He creates all that makes it possible for us to do it. He does not will it in the sense of doing it, otherwise it would be quite in order to say, when we drink or eat or sleep for instance, that God performed these actions. God creates them, He does not do or perform them. Another objection, based on another confusion, is that if God allows us to do evil, then He approves of it and likes it. But to will something in the sense of allowing a person to do it is one thing; and to approve of his action and commend it is quite another..

Ibn Uthaimeen gives an example illustrating the Hadith of Angel Jibreel. Allah says in the Quran,

“Evil has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned, that Allah may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return [by repenting]” {Quran 30:41}

In this verse, Allah states the evil (fasaad) that has appeared, the cause for it and its result. The evil (fasaad) and the cause of it are both evil (sharr). However, the goal of it is good: that Allah may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return [by repenting]. Hence, there is a wisdom and a goal behind that fasaad. This goal and wisdom makes the entire action something good and not a pure evil.

Benefits of believing in Qadr

  • We Affirm an all powerful God.
  • An automatic trust (Yaqeen) in Allah.
  • Our Ibadah is increased.
  • We will not fear anyone( you do not fear the creation, you only fear The Creator).
  • You will be Patient.
  • You will be able to conquer the anxiety.
  • You will not be an arrogant person, you will be humble.
  • You will not be selfish or greedy.
“Be content with what Allah has written for you and you shall be the richest of all mankind.” Prophet Muhammad

And we conclude with this du’a:

”رَبَّنَآ أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُورَنَا وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَآ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ “
"Our Lord, perfect for us our light and forgive us. Indeed, You are over all things competent." {Quran 66:8}

Jazakumullahu Khairan

Assalaamu ‘Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakatuh

Ma Assalaama

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