The adjective is that part of the sentence that joins the noun to qualify it.

Use of some adjectives in Spanish

1. Bueno - Malo

Bueno = Good
Malo = Bad

Bueno = Masculino, singular
Malo = Masculino, Singular
Buenos = Masculino, plural
Malos = Masculino, plural

Buena = Femenino, singular
Mala = Femenino, singular
Buenas = Femenino, plural
Malas = Femenino, plural

Bueno y malo lose the last letter O when they precede a noun that they qualify:

BUEN señor = Good Sir
MAL caminar = Bad walk

But, if between them and the noun another word appears, this does NOT happen.

BUENO y respetable amigo = good and respectable friend
MALO y espantoso suceso = bad and dreadful event

Buena y mala do not lose their last letter A in any case.

BUENA alma = Good soul
MALA mujer = Bad woman

2. Alguno - ninguno

Alguno = any
Ninguno = None

Alguno = masculino, singular
Algunos = masculino, plural

Alguna = femenino, singular
Algunas = femenino, plural

Ninguno = masculino, singular
Ninguna = femenino, singular

Alguno y ninguno lose their last letter O when they are put before the noun:

ALGÚN lugar = Any place
NINGÚN modo = No way

(Always remember that if the noun that follows the adjective is masculine, then the adjective must also be masculine. The same in the case that it is feminine).

Ninguno it has no plural, neither in its masculine form nor in its feminine form. Therefore it cannot be used with plural nouns.

In affirmative sentences: Tengo ALGUNOS libros = I have some books

In negative sentences: No tengo libro ALGUNO = I have no book

In interrogative sentences: ¿Hay ALGUN remedio? = Is there any remedy?

On the other hand, ninguno can be used anywhere in the sentence, no matter if it is negative, affirmative, or interrogative.

3. Grande

Grande = big

Grande = masculino/femenino, singular
Grandes = masculino/femenino, plural

When grande comes before the noun, loses its last two letters:

GRAN hombre = Big man
GRAN casa = Big house

4. Cualquiera

Cualquiera = Anyone - anything

Cualquiera: masculino/femenino, singular
Cualesquiera: masculino/femenino, plural

They can be used, or not, in front of the noun

CUALQUIERA hombre = Any man
CUALESQUIERA hombres = Any men

Niño CUALQUIERA = Any child
Niños CUALESQUIERA = Any children

5. Medio, pobre, mero

Medio = half

Medio: masculino, singular
Medios: masculino, plural
Media: femenino, singular
Medias: femenino, plural

Pobre = Poor

Pobre: masculino/femenino, singular
Pobres: masculino/femenino, plural

Mero = mere

Mero: masculino/femenino, singular

Medio: precedes the noun, when it does not have a numeral adjective before it.

MEDIO pan = half bread

Pobre: goes after the noun. It is used to talk about need, hardship, scarcity.

Viuda POBRE = poor widow

Mero: It always goes before the noun.

Por el MERO gusto de caminar = For the mere pleasure of walking

6. Simple, triste

Simple = simple

Triste = sad

Simple: Is postponed to the noun when talking about something little warned:

¡Es mucho trabajo tener un hijo SIMPLE! = It is a lot of work to have a SIMPLE child!

Its precedes the noun when talking about the quality or degree of a person:

Es un SIMPLE soldado = He is a SIMPLE soldier

Triste: When denoting comparison, it is used before the noun:

Gana un TRISTE salario = He earn a SAD salary

In other cases, it can be used both before and after the noun.

7. Cierto, raro, varios, diversos

Cierto = Certain

Raro = Rare

Varios = Several

Diversos = Divers

These four adjectives have different meanings depending on whether they prepend or postpone the noun.

Ex:

Me llegó CIERTA noticia = I got some news
Me llegó una noticia CIERTA = I got certains news

Son turistas muy RAROS = They are very rare tourists
RAROS turistas en la playa = Few tourists on the beach

Me compre VARIOS trajes = I bought several suits
Me compre trajes VARIOS = I bought different suits

8. Uno, cientos

Uno = one

Cientos = hundreds

They are cardinal adjectives.

They are used before the adjective that is put before the noun

Tengo UN excelente amigo = I have an excellent friend
Tengo CIENTOS de hermosos caballos = I have hundreds of beautiful horses.

As you can see, the word UNO loses its last vowel. In the case of CIENTOS, it can write it like this, or delete their last three letters, it is indistinct.

9. Primero, tercero

Primero = First

Tercero = Third

The are cardinal adjectives too.

When written in its masculine form, they lose the last vowel when they precede the noun

PRIMER día del mes = First day of the month.

They CANNOT be used before a feminine noun:

PRIMER mujer = INCORRECT

PRIMERA mujer = CORRECT

(First woman)

10. Cada, demás

Cada = each - every

Demás = rest

Cada is used for both masculine and feminine, but has no plural form.

CADA niño = each child
CADA treinta alumnos = every thirty students

Demás is only used with gender neutral

LO demás = the rest

11. Ambos

Ambos = Both

It has no singular form. It serves to point out two things that have already been mentioned before

AMBOS juguetes = Both toys

I hope you liked the class. For any questions do not hesitate to contact me by message.

See you next class

Stay Safe

Sophie ☼
Sophie ☼
@SophieQueenn  

Saludos y besos, Sophie ☼