introduction

I know there's already quite a few of these kinds of articles out there, BUT I have an Italian test coming up next week and I thought this could be a good idea to both motivate myself and make you suffer alongside me.

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the basics

1.) nouns and adjectives

The regular endings in the singular are the same for nouns and adjectives:
feminine (femminile): -a
masculine (maschile): -o
either feminine or masculine: -e

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2.) definite and indefinite articles

before a consonant:
- feminine: la /una
- masculine: il / un

before a vowel:
- feminine: l' / un'
- masculine: l' / un'

before s+ a consonant, z, ps, pn, gn, x, y:
- masculine: lo / uno

(there are as far as I know no feminine nouns that start with any of these)

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3.) pluralization

the article...
...il becomes i
...la or l' becomes le
...lo/ l' (m.) becomes gli

the ending...
...o becomes i
...a becomes e
...e becomes i

- nouns that end in consonants (often loan words) and are usually masculine stay the same in the plural (e.g. il bar -> i bar)
- the same goes for nouns with accents on the last syllable (e.g. la città -> le città)
- nouns that end in -ista (like barista) are both feminine and masculine and can be interpreted as both until you pluralize them, then you need to "decide" which article you need

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okay, that's all for today

I know, grammar is a lil' dry, but I'm planning on doing articles on pronunciation, vocabulary and verbs and perhaps even exercises.

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Also please keep in mind I'm barely at A1, so if I made any mistakes, please let me know.

the second article in the series