The work of a modern doctor involves continuous education in the literal sense of the word. Reading medical literature is the basis of this process.
Sometimes you have to face completely opposite research results regarding one topic. Misinterpretation of scientific data can lead to serious problems for urological practices and patients. In any case, if you need dissertation writing assistance, you can always contact special services where you will be happy to assist in writing your work.

A critical and analytical approach to scientific literature is a necessity of today's reality. This is not only a problem of the faculty of the urological community or the staff of urological clinics. Question much wider. Using a simple example of the fact that many doctors promote the rejection of preventive vaccinations in children, based on dubious scientific evidence and leading to outbreaks of diseases, one can imagine the degree of importance of this problem.

How can you get convincing evidence on a particular topic?
There are many answers to this question. There is no doubt that in order to form a reliable conclusion on a particular issue, it is necessary to be aware of current
modern research. Reading and understanding scientific literature requires special skills that are necessary for any modern doctor.

Сritical appraisal of qualitative research example essay

Most often in the medical literature are articles describing the results of new clinical studies. Another important type of articles are critical literature reviews. They do not contain descriptions of new methods, but there is a generalization of many sources of literature, a consensus is revealed on a particular issue, discussions and debates on controversial topics are presented. It should be remembered that literature reviews and meta-analyzes are a reflection of the current the state of the question at a given time and may lose their relevance.

Reading scientific literature has nothing to do with reading popular science articles or newspaper reviews. To begin with, it is better to read a scientific article not from the beginning of the text, but in a special order, which will be discussed later. Reading the medical literature of a scientific article is accompanied by active work, marginal notes, repeated readings, and sometimes reading articles presented in the links. Reading one article can take a lot of time and effort. As you acquire the skill of analyzing scientific articles, the process will move much faster.

In most cases, articles on clinical research have standard sections: abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion and conclusion (or conclusions). The name of the sections may vary depending on the requirements of the journals. Recently, the popularity of gaining additions to articles that are posted in applications or online magazine resources. For example, additional figures and detailed tables, access to primary databases.

Examples of critical appraisal essays in nursing

As Melnink and Feinout-Overholt noted, the critical evaluation of scientific data requires that nurses have knowledge of the analysis of the reliability, relevance, and applicability of the findings to solve an existing clinical issue. Since the goal of introducing scientific data into practice is to improve the results of treatment, it is important that the data selected for this purpose are reliable and reliable so that they can actually improve the quality of nursing care. Consequently, the nurse, who is faced with the task of introducing evidence practice should be able to conduct a critical analysis of the results of various studies. Such an analysis will help to ensure that research results were obtained by applying rigorous and systematic methods, and can be used to work with a specific population of patients.

When critically evaluating a published scientific study, one should always note how appropriate those statistical methods used to analyze data are; how statistically significant are the results. First, descriptive statistics is used, which allows you to characterize the sample by such parameters as age, gender, religion, level of education, as well as calculate average values, standard deviations, frequency of distribution and percentages.

Critical appraisal example essay

Before starting to read our example, we would like to advise you first to read the sample essay on the topic "compare and contrast countries essay"

We give further as an example examples of critical appraisal essays of the PROMIS study. In the PROMIS study, the diagnostic accuracy of the transrectal prostate biopsy (RV) was evaluated using ultrasound and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) compared with perineal biopsy (through the grating with 5 mm needle spacing) in 576 men. With perineal biopsy, prostate cancer was detected in 71% of patients, including clinically significant prostate cancer - in 40% of patients. The sensitivity of the iMPT to detecting clinically significant prostate cancer was higher than with a transrectal biopsy (93% and 48%, respectively), and the specificity was lower (41% and 96%). The authors concluded that in the case of an mpMRI before a transrectal prostate biopsy, 27% of patients could “Avoid biopsy”, the number of diagnosed cases of “clinically insignificant” prostate cancer would decrease by 5%, and the detectability of “clinically significant” prostate cancer would increase by 18% compared with transrectal biopsy of the pancreas.

Is it possible, on the basis of this study, to recommend the small-pelvic (GRM) to all patients before the primary biopsy? A detailed analysis of the materials, research methods and results showed that such a recommendation (for now) is premature, and today the Clinical recommendations of the European Association of Urology (EAU Guidelines) indicate the need to perform an MRI just before re-biopsy. In the PROMIS study, radiation diagnostics physicians who evaluated the results of the iMPT underwent special training in the correct interpretation of data using the Likert scale, where the values ​​1 and 2 (out of 5) correspond to the low probability of having PCa. It turned out that almost half of the men who had a grade of 1 or 2 had peritoneal biopsy diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 10% of patients with grade 2 had a “clinically significant” prostate cancer.

In addition, tumors with a Gleason score of ≥ (4 + 3) or a maximum tumor tissue length in the biopsy ≥6mm were referred to as the “clinically significant” prostate cancer. This definition has been subjected to fair criticism, since even the 2nd prognostic group (the Gleason score (3 + 4)) now allows many specialists to consider a tumor as “clinically significant”, and therefore using other criteria of clinical significance could affect the result of the study.

Thus, methods for evaluating MRI depend on the interpretation of specialists, and small values ​​of the Likert scale do not exclude the diagnosis of prostate cancer.


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