Anubis is one of the most prominent and mystical gods of ancient Egypt. He was known since the earliest periods in the history of the civilization that was based near the Nile River.

A God Without Temples
To date, archaeologists have not unearthed any monumental temple dedicated to this god. His “temples” are tombs and cemeteries. The major centers of his cult were located in Asyut (Lycopolis) and Hardai (Cynopolis). His name appears in the oldest known mastabas (mud-brick tombs) of the First Dynasty and several shrines to the god have been found. For example, a shrine and a cemetery of mummified dogs and jackals was discovered at Anubeion, a place located to the east of Saqqara. It seems that during the reign of the first dynasties he was even more significant than Osiris. This changed during the Middle Kingdom period, but Anubis continued to be one of the most important deities.

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Anubis was one of the deities that could also work against humans. He was independent, sometimes helpful, but sometimes punished humans as well. One of his main roles was ''The Guardian of the Scales''. This was related to the belief that after death a person meets the gods who put his or her heart on a special scale. The scenes of the weighing of the heart ceremony from the Book of the Dead present Anubis - who measured if the person was worthy enough to live an eternal life. Thus, Anubis could decide the soul’s fate.

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