Hello my friends! This article contains the second part of my queens and empresses list. I hope you enjoy it!

Nefertiti (c. 1370 BCE- c. 1330 BCE):
Occupation: Queen
Nefertiti whose name means "beautiful woman has come" was the queen of Egypt and wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten during the 14th century.
Little is known about the origins of Nefertiti, but her legacy of beauty and power continue to intrigue scholars today. Some evidence suggests that she hailed from the town Akhmin and is the daughter or niece of a high official named Ay.
The exact date of when Nefertiti married Amenhotep III's son is unknown. It is believed she was 15 when they wed, which may have been before her husband assumed the throne. They apparently ruled together from 1353 to 1336 B.C. and had six daughters with speculation they may have also had a son. It has been stated that the couple may have had a genuine romantic connection, a dynamic not generally seen in depictions of ancient pharaohs.
Nefertiti and the pharaoh took an active role in establishing the Aten cult, a religious mythology which defined Aten, the sun, as the most important god and the only one worthy of worship.
Nefertiti was probably one of the most powerful women to have ruled. Her husband went to great lengths to display her as an equal. In several reliefs she is shown wearing the crown of a pharaoh or smiting her enemies in battle. But despite this great power, Nefertiti disappears from all depictions after 12 years. The reason for her disappearance is unknown. Some scholars believe she died, while others speculate she was elevated to the status of co-regent (equal power to the pharaoh) and began to dress herself as a man. Another theory suggests she became known as Pharaoh Smenkhkare, ruling Egypt after her husband's death.

Mary Tudor (1516-1558):
Occupation: Queen
Mary Tudor was born on February 18 1516 and was the only child of King Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon, to survive through childhood. In 1525 Henry named her Princess of Wales and sent her to live on the Welsh Border.
Mary took the throne as the first queen regnant. At first, she acknowledged to religious dualism of her country, but she desperately wanted to convert England back to Catholicism.
Mary was 37 at the time of her accession. She knew is she remained childless, the throne would be passed to her protestant half-sister Elizabeth. She needed a catholic heir to avoid the reversal of her reform. To accomplish her goal, she arranged to marry Philip II of Spain. The public response to Mary's marriage was extremely unpopular, but she pressed on repealing many of Henry VIII's religious edicts and replacing them with her own, which included a strict heresy law. The enforcement of this law resulted in the burning of over 300 Protestants as heretics. Mary's religious persecution made her extremely unpopular and earned her the nickname "Bloody Mary".
Childless and grief-stricken by 1558, Mary had endured several false pregnancies and was suffering from what may have been uterine or ovarian cancer. She died at St. James Palace in London on November 17 1558.

Marie Antoinette (1755- 1793):
Occupation: Queen
Marie Antoinette was the last queen of France and was born on November 2 1755 in Vienna, Austria. She was the 15th and second to last child of Maria Theresa, empress of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. The death of Louis, dauphin de France who was also the son of French monarch Louis XV left the king's 11 year old grandson, Louis- Auguste, heir to the French throne. Within months Marie Antoinette and Louis- Auguste were pledged to marry each other. They were married on May 16 1770. Marie Antoinette did not adjust well, however, to married life for which she was obviously not ready for, her frequent letters home revealed intense homesickness. Louis XV died in 1774 and Louis- Auguste succeeded him to the French throne as Louis XVI making Marie Antoinette, at 19 years old queen of France.
When word reached to Maria Theresa in 1777 that her daughter and Louis XVI had not yet consummated their marriage, Maria Theresa immediately dispatched her son Joseph II to France to act as a sort of marriage counsellor, whatever his counsels, apparently worked, A year later, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie Therese Charlotte.
On October 6 1789 a crowd estimated at 10,000 gathered outside the Palace Versailles and demanded that the king and queen be bought to Paris. At the Tuileries Palace in Paris Marie Antoinette immediately stepped into her husband's place, meeting with advisers and ambassadors and dispatching urgent letters to other European rulers begging them to help save France's monarchy.
In a plot hatched primarily by Marie Antoinette and her lover Count Axel Von Fersen, the royal family attempted to escape France in June 1791, but they were captured and returned to Paris.
In October 1793, a month into the infamous and bloody Reign of Terror that claimed tens of thousands of French lives, Marie Antoinette was put on trial for treason and theft. After a two day trial, an all-male jury found Marie Antoinette was sent to the guillotine as her husband did several months before, on October 16 1796. On the night before her execution, she had written her last letter to her sister-in-law Elisabeth. "I am calm," the queen wrote, "as people are who conscience is clear."

Cleopatra VII (c.69 BCE- c.30 BCE)
Occupation: Queen
The last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator was born around 69 B.C.
Cleopatra's father was King Ptolemy XII. Little is known about her mother, but some speculate that she may have been Cleopatra's father's sister, Cleopatra V Tryphaena. Debate also surrounds Cleopatra's ethnicity while it is believed for a long time that she was of Greek Descent, some speculate that her linage may have been African.
In 51 B.C., Ptolemy XII died, leaving the throne to 18 year old Cleopatra and her 10 year old brother, Ptolemy XIII. It is likely that the two siblings married as was customary at the time.
Soon after they assumed power, complications arose between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. Eventually Cleopatra fled to Syria, where she assembled an army to defeat her rival in order to declare the throne for herself. In 48 B.C. she returned to Egypt with her military might and faced her brother at Pelusium.
Around this time, the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey was consuming Rome. Pompey eventually sought refuge in Egypt. In pursuit of his rival, Julius Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt, where he met and fell in love with Cleopatra. In Caesar Cleopatra now had access to enough military muscle to dethrone her brother and solidify her grip on Egypt as sole ruler.
In 47 B.C. Cleopatra bore Caesar a son whom she named Caesarion. However, Caesar never acknowledged the boy as his offspring. Cleopatra eventually followed Caesar back to Rome, but returned to Egypt in 44 B.C. following his assassination.
In 41 B.C., Marc Antony sent for Cleopatra so that she could answer questions about her allegiance to the empire's fallen leader. Cleopatra agreed to his request and made a lavish entrance into the city Tarsus. Captivated by her beauty and personality, Antony plunged into a love affair with Cleopatra that would eventually produce three children, including twins named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene.
Just like Caesar before him, Antony was embroiled in a battle over Rome's control. His rival was Caesar's own great-nephew Octavian. Antony antagonised his rival by declaring Caesarion as Caesar's real son and legal heir, rather than Octavian.
In 31 B.C., Cleopatra and Antony combined armies to try to defeat Octavian in a raging sea battles at Actium. The clash however proves to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt.
Antony soon returned to the battle field, where he was falsely informed that Cleopatra had died. Upon hearing the news, Antony comitted suicide by stabbing himself. Cleopatra soon followed her lover's demise by ending her life as well by being bitten by an Egyptian cobra. She died on August 12 30 B.C. The two were buried together as they has wished.

Thanks for reading!
25/09/2017